April 27, 2016
Public Distribution System minus the public
[ Tongam Rina ]
In a state like Arunachal where agricultural produce is minimal, there is an overwhelming dependence on subsidised rice and other essential items provided by the centre through Public Distribution System (PDS).
While people who are dependent on PDS, either have to satisfy their hunger with just two meals a day or buy rice from the open market, people responsible for making PDS work; officials, contractors and politicians who have been given responsibility of mitigating hungry stomaches in the state have ended up illegally profiting crores of rupees.
The loophole in the system is such that respective governments in the state have been forced to tow the lines of the PDS contractors. It is not surprising given the fact that MPs, MLAs, their wives, children and close relatives are PDS contractors. Politicians, cutting across political parties make money through PDS. The biggest irony is that some of them have been indicted by the Court, but they continue to pull the political strings.
In a state, where common citizens, numerous unions, organizations and students Unions keep quite unless it directly benefits them, it is not surprising that for gobbling up the rice meant for the poor, many politicians, contractors and officials are rewarded with power, positions and plum postings.
It’s not only PDS rice that has been responsible in making thieves of the highest order turn into powerful business tycoons and politicians.
There is kerosene, salt, sugar and flour that comes under PDS. No one knows what happens to these necessary items.
The role of Food Corporation of India is another story altogether.
The falsifications of data by contractors have been easily accepted by those in authority, without any question.
Two prime examples of falsifications; an individual consuming 24 kg of iodised salt and 64 kg rice every month. There has not been any decision as yet by the court on these issues while the payment of contractors has reached the highest court of the country. What does it spell for the common people who are dependent on PDS rice and other essential commodities?
A precedent was set in 2007 when money for the PDS contractors was first cleared, without much questions asked. The Court has a model to follow based on the payments made than. The same people who had a hand in clearance of bills than, is now telling us that PDS will be on track.
Nabam Tuki govt was forced to clear the bills, though it is said that selective contractors were paid. Later, Tuki govt unsuccessfully challenged the Court order but Court had already given its verdict in favour of clearance of payments.
The current govt have to follow suit because there is an order from the highest Court to clear the bill amounting to more than Rs 200 cr. Among others, at least one PPA MLA will get a chunk of the PDS money if the govt choose not to appeal in the court, which is rather unlikely.
Governor JP Rajkhowa is reported to have ordered an inquiry into PDS dealing in the state when there was President’s Rule. Ironically, the cheerleader from Raj Bhavan has gone silent on the issue after change of guard.
Because of flawed PDS, we have dozens of millionaire politicians, contractors and govt employees, who have gotten rich and richer robbing the poor of their food. Yet again, we have been told that PDS will be revamped in the state. Though the names of those governing the state have changed, it is going to be another joke played in the name of the PDS and the poor. It is not the common people that have benefited from the PDS in the state; in a strange turn of events, it’s selective few, in the name of poor Arunachalees.
April 20, 2016
[ Tongam Rina ]
For the longest time, the state have been discussing about disaster management and preparedness. Forget about management, we are just not prepared to face any natural calamity. For a change, we can’t blame the government for all things that go wrong but it is fair to say that government mechanism to face natural disasters is very inadequate.
When the earth shook on Jan 13, there was feeling of helplessness but at the same time, there was a realization how badly unprepared we are to face large-scale natural calamity.
A quick reality check: In twin capital towns, there are not more than 1000 hospital beds. There are no demarcated safe and unsafe areas. Few buildings have been declared unsafe including the office of the Urban Development, in Mowb II, Itanagar though half of the concrete structures in Itanagar and Naharlagun would fall under the unsafe category because of violations of building bylaws.
By Govt of Arunachal law, all buildings are supposed to be ground plus three. But hundreds of buildings have come up that is more than three storied. A disaster waiting to happen is perhaps an understatement when the govt itself violates the specifications and turn a blind eye to private individuals building houses precariously. Concrete buildings apart, there are thousands of kuctcha houses, hazardously built across the town.
Perhaps, the departments that are responsible for implementing govt laws have no clue how many buildings are unsafe and how many have been built in violation of the order in entire state. One can’t expect much from the departments of Urban Development, Disaster Management to do anything elsewhere when they have not done much to regulate laws in Capital Towns itself.
Since the govt departments have gone easy, the citizens have taken full advantage of the loopholes by undermining safety measures.
There are too many examples to cite but there is a ten storied building coming up in Bank Tinali, Itanagar while a prime hotel in the middle of the town is more than six storied, minus the underground ones. Is there a department responsible to check such blatant violations to ensure safety of the citizens though one would presume that something as important as safety should not be left for the government alone to ensure.
In the congested parts of the twin capital, fire engines can’t enter because every available space has been encroached upon. The story is the same in every town. It’s a different story that there are not enough fire trucks in the state.
There are no ambulances with medical teams. Though the government has said that there will be helicopter at standby to reach out to those in need, natural calamities never announces its arrival beforehand. Even if there are air or land ambulances, the lengthy official process to get one will only ensure that it comes after everything is over.
Unless, there is a government as well as individual mechanism in place to demolish unsafe structures, decongest the localities and stop rampant earth cutting, let us be prepared that this state is just not ready to face any disaster. We can only hope and pray that nature will have mercy on us even though we have made one mistake after another.
The villages in Arunachal, with age old tribal building technology will perhaps endure to teach the govt and the town dwellers a thing or two on how to stay safe, if not prepared, to face natural calamities.
April 13, 2016
Amenities and education
[ Tongam Rina ]
Crores of rupees have been announced for a school in Naharlagun by the Chief Minister, leaving almost all the educational institutions envious and teachers, students and administrators scratching their heads in bewilderment.
The buzz is that someone in the School Management Committee is close to a BJP leader, instrumental in chronicling every move of the earlier govt. So infectious was the Congress govt bashing by the BJP that this daily got trapped in the middle with a lawyer of high profile person, appointed by the Tuki govt, serving a notice to us for defamation.
That’s why, yours truly won’t name the school or anyone related to it, because lawyer’s fees are unaffordable for a media house like ours and we can’t waste our precious time in any court for stating the facts, nor do we endorse wasting the time of the court. It is for the right minded citizens and organizations to take up from here about distribution or lack of funds.
While we hope that money will be used judiciously, we can’t ignore the fact that educational institutions in the state are in shambles. There are very few schools in the state with requisite teachers, furniture and infrastructure.
The Governor has made his displeasure known about the bad state of affairs in the education department so has the Chief Minister. Both of them were taken by surprise by apparent lack of facilities and overcrowding. The two key people obviously need not be told that students in schools, colleges, even the Central University are used to the fact that facilities if any, are bad. Unlike “surprised” Chief Minister and the Governor, students are not surprised at the nonexistent facilities.
For those who studied in govt schools and colleges, it is normal to pee in the nearby jungle because there are few toilets with doors with fewer running water facilities. By now, the Chief Minister will know, experienced by his numerous inspections of toilets and bathrooms in every place he has been to that even though towns and villages are blessed with rivers and streams, there is rarely a tap that has running water facility. We are conditioned to the fact that when we have a jungle nearby, perhaps it does not make sense to discuss about bad or nonexistent toilets.
Most schools are overcrowded with very few teachers. The buildings, if standing are in abysmal conditions, unfit to be used as class rooms. Subject teachers are rare in higher secondary schools with many students forced to sit for exams without ever being taught, for want of teachers. These same students will be selected as teachers as has been the case. What do we get in return; a clueless student becoming clueless teacher, destroying generations.
It’s long overdue but perhaps a start can be made, where there are facilities for teachers as well as students. The budget estimates this year have envisaged a considerable amount of money for education department. It is for the department and those in educational committees to seize the opportunity to ensure that basic facilities are in place in order to initiate quality teaching-learning process.
April 6, 2016
Red Tapism in Abundance
[ Tongam Rina ]
India is notorious for red tapism. Many programs and projects have come to a standstill because of rigid take by decision-making bodies. The reality as well as reputation is so widespread that Prime Minister Narendra Modi promised the Japanese Prime Minister, last year that “There will be red carpet but not red Tapism”.
In Arunachal, the red carpets are gathering dust somewhere because of obsessive red tapism by bureaucrats, technocrats as well as the politicians. It is sometimes selective, depending on who you are and the proximity that you have with govt employees and politicians but none the less, the files are mounting in offices.
The stack of files outside the office of the Finance Department during the financial year ending is just one example. One may say that it was because of rush for last moment clearance but the fact is that there are 12 months in a year. At the way files were moving or rather not moving, it looked like working season consists of just one month while the people running the state and citizens who had a file to be cleared hang around doing nothing for 11 months.
The mad rush for last minute clearance of files should be a learning experience for all.
The current govt had promised translucent governance which included smooth sailing of files. One was not supposed to carry their files as it was promised that it will progress step wise. But one has to carry the file in person in order to get it cleared, or else, it is discarded somewhere in a corner of some office, where it can’t be traced. Files does not move unless you carry them personally, no matter how thickly an office is staffed. In most offices, any day, one will find long queque of public holding their files instead of waiting for the government employees to carry them where they are supposed to reach.
The members of Indian Administrative Services, who are well regarded in the state, belongs to a different category all together, when it comes to obstructing smooth movement of files. The pressures from politicians, who are clueless most of the time, on these officers are obvious. These officers are caught between the official rules as well as undue political pressure making it difficult for everyone else. But in their eagerness to stick by the rule as well as please the politicians, files do get stuck.
Perhaps, one can’t blame them as most of the officers are young with very limited experience to fall back on but official process should not be derailed because of bureaucratic indecisiveness, both experienced and the inexperienced. Though there are exceptions like the adored Sandip Kumar Singh, the current DC of Capital, at the same time, there are many who have a long way to go when it comes to decisiveness and dealing with common citizens with their share of problems and the diabolic mix of demanding politicians and thugs with files.
Hopefully, this year would be a learning experience for all to keep the system running at the decision making level as the state is going through a critical juncture, in terms of development process as well as governance.
March 30, 2016
Never ending flip-flops
[ Tongam Rina ]
Sept last year, Governor J P Rajkhowa wrote a letter to the Prime Minister regarding the proposed Green Field Airport at Hollongi near Itanagar. The letter was filled with complaints at the futility of Governor’s effort for a transparent site selection and land acquisition in order to avoid “unnecessary controversies”. The zealous governor went as far to suggest that Hollongi plan should be scrapped, instead Lilabari in Lakhimpur, Assam be upgraded. It’s a different issue that he has now suggested for more Greenfield airports after his suggestions of shifting the proposed airport out of the state drew flak. Such change in stand, at the whims and fancies of those in power, including the Governor, will not do any good to the state other than confusing the central government, further slowing the entire process.
If one recalls, in the letter Governor made it clear that due to vested interests of “powerful politicians”, the proposal of setting up the airport at Karsingsa was scrapped and Hollongi selected for the project. Though the letter was filled with disdain and some facts misplaced, nonetheless it highlighted how things terribly go wrong in the state because of vested interest.
Arunachal Pradesh remains one of the last states in India not to have an airport. At the rate, the issue on airport is being taken up; it is unlikely that there would be any soon, though the process of having an airport in the state was initiated way back in 1985. Finally, the prospect of having one took shape in February 20, 2007 when the then Union Home Minister Shivraj Patil laid the foundation stone for an airport in Karsingsa, some 25 kms from Itanagar. But the intervening period have seen flip-flops on site selection, so typical of Arunachal.
In March 2009, Public Investment Board raised objections due to high cost on earth work and suggested for exploring an alternate site even though the Ministry of Defence issued a No Objection Certificate in June 2007 for construction of the Greenfield airport at Karsingsa with several preconditions.
With preconditions difficult to abide by, a new site was sought as the Airport Authority of India recommended Hollangi after reports by the Feasibility and Technical experts in 2012.
Now, after all the noise, Raj Bhavan informs that Airport Authority of India needs 525 acre of land free of cost and free of all encumbrances, for the Greenfield Airport at Hollongi. In all likelihood, the absurd demand will not be accepted by the people.
Gone are the days of handing over land for free to Government of India. Most of prime land in several parts of Arunachal has been occupied by the Indian Army and central govt establishments for free but these days, people of Arunachal will not part with an inch of land without monetary compensation. All major projects including the Trans Arunachal Highway is yet to take off because of issue of land compensation. For politicians and government officers, land acquisition has been the ultimate mode of making money. Understandably, common citizens are fast learners. They will not part an inch of their land or budge from their demands of exorbitant compensation amount since money has to be made in the name of development. In the meantime, new constructions as well as plantations will come up in the areas proposed for acquisition, which will be gladly incorporated in the compensation package by the government officials in exchange of ‘cuts’.
Perhaps, the next best alternative is to seek permission to use the facilities at the Advance Landing Grounds in Vijaynagar, Walong, Ziro, Aalo, Mechuka, Tuting and Pasighat for civilians till the state, Raj Bhavan and Centre figures out where they want to have the airport and when. One never knows when one might get lucky so till then, it is a good idea to plant bamboos, bananas and build structures along the roadside.
March 23, 2016
Roads and durable monsoon
[ Tongam Rina ]
Roads are indicator of development agenda of any state. Thankfully, for Arunachal, particularly, the PWD, expectations of the people are less since we are satisfied with few hundred kilometers of miserable roads, not worthy to be called roads. As long as bike or a sumo can plod through, we are happy and celebrate that it is indeed a road. If the worn out state transport buses make it through the dirt track called road, there are absolutely no questions asked, even if 40 kilometers takes four hours.
Some stretches of the ambitious Trans Arunachal Highway is ready for use. It looks nice and driving through it makes us wonder if we are indeed in Arunachal. But throw a side glance; we know that it won’t last. Not because the road quality have been compromised but because hills and mountains have been chopped down indiscriminately and it is just a matter of time when the roads will be blocked because of boulders and mud slides that will come raining down from the severed mountains and hills.
These roads reflect the society we live in; shallow and happy with comforts that is short termed.
The same is the case with Capital roads. It took a long time to start but the cosmetic makeover, at least the major stretches of the highway seems complete.
Some four months back, the road rehabilitation had started. It is commendable that the labourers, contractors and Highway Department managed to stitch the tattered roads together but skipping the culverts and bridges, in spite of so many hurdles.
There were reports of intimidations of labourers and freshly done roads defaced, which halted the whole exercise more than two times. Perhaps for the contractors, it was not a new experience to be intimidated by extortionists but this time the tactic used made many wonder whether some sections of the society is at all ready to make way for development process to get underway. At one time, the whole section of the labourers who were engaged in the road construction was driven out of the state. This perhaps happens everywhere but for a state that has few kilometers of motorable roads, it was outrageous.
At the same time, it was interesting to note that the Highway section of the PWD has no machineries of its own. The start was delayed because the department had to procure machineries but perhaps, they will tell us that since some expertise was used, they did not had the right machines for it. But for a department which has engineers as contractors with all the right equipments, hiring is financially more viable and makes much more sense for all concern.
While, one appreciates the hard work put in absence of logistics and adequate funds, the roads, however does not seem it will be able to withstand the monsoon season. The work seems very shoddy and in absence of drainage system, soon we will have the same problem we have been witnessing for decades now; roads that are not durable even to last a season.
Soon the department and contractors will make us believe that rains are to be blamed for the bad roads. As usual, we will agree that it does not rain elsewhere.
March 9, 2016
Crowded political field, many cheer leaders
[ Tongam Rina ]
After months of political instability because of Congress infighting, with BJP and Raj Bhavan as cheerleaders, derailing the development process in the state, the new govt led by Chief Minister Kalikho Pul owes it to the people of Arunachal by putting the welfare of the state on the topmost agenda.
For almost a year, citizens were shunted to the backseat as the politicians fought the nastiest battle to be in power. We were reduced to confused spectators as Nabam Tuki and Pul refused to give up as they relentless pursued to be in power.
Perhaps, the time has come for the politicians to redeem themselves and do whatever is necessary to put the state back on the track. Though it would be foolhardy to expect major changes, given the fact that the state does not generate revenue of its own, there is no harm in anticipating positive changes. In a state that is wholly dependent on the centre for food for its citizens, salaries for government employees, funds for hospitals, roads and education, one can only hope that meager funds that center gives is well utilised.
If the new government really wants to do something, there has to be accountability to begin with. Along with accountability, transparent governance will follow. And to achieve that, harping for change in the nearest platform, at the top of the voice is not going change the scene.
As of now, the new Chief Minister is very over enthusiastic as well as hurried, if one goes by the series of announcements.
While it is too early to comment, one can only hope that he does not end up as the Chief Minister that merely promises. But then we are a state that is happy with promises, delivered or not.
However, things need to change and it should. For that change to happen, the Chief Minister must choose his team wisely. The downfall of the former Chief Minister Nabam Tuki was largely credited to his political appointees and his inability to keep a rein on them.
For history not to repeat, Pul has some very tough tasks ahead.
While he was quick in bureaucratic reshuffling, many scapegoats of political tussle, Pul’s cabinet are almost a replica of the former ministry headed by Tuki. Though supporters might shout and scream in satisfaction, was the political battle worth the fight, if he had to bring in the same team? Even if the boss has new ideas and aspirations, if the team is the same old one, there are unlikely chances of any remarkable changes.
Few more ministerial berths are empty and he has to choose them wisely without succumbing to the pressure of politics of appeasing tribal affiliations. For once, people of the state as well the ones running it should realize that individual performances are not tribe or majority based.
If Pul has to bring in changes, his first task is not to announce series of promises but bring a credible team that will deliver and implement, not only his promises but the policies for the citizens announced by the centre. The policy of appeasement should be the thing of past. Arunachalees are ready to take a step forward, without being bogged down by tribal connections. And the tiny steps that have been taken must be respected by the Chief Minister by bringing in a team, even if it means bringing in three more ministers from one tribe. As long as they deliver, he should certainly not worry about which tribe they belong to.
As they say politics is all about providing accommodation and appeasement. As of now, it does look like he is not done accommodating yet. BJP is done with cheerleading. Now, they will certainly want to be players themselves and will look forward to plum positions. The field has just gotten smaller and difficult for Pul with too many players, including the ones from Delhi involved.
March 2, 2016
Hope for a welcome change
[ Tongam Rina ]
Finally, after much political uncertainty, Arunachal has a new government, though it remains to be seen what is in store for the people of the state, as the Supreme Court is yet to give its final verdict on the political mess and the role of the Governor, which led to imposition of President’s Rule. We may be scratching our heads at the conundrum after coming together of unlikely partners, for now, Kalikho Pul has the magic number.
No one was surprised as history repeated itself with the MLAs switching loyalties within no time, few hours after the new chief minister took charge.
One just wishes that they had done it earlier and saved the state from embarrassment of a President’s Rule and political uncertainty that plunge Arunachal into a total indeterminate state for months together. Perhaps, not our lookout, but for sure, the expenditures at five stars hotels and guest houses in Delhi must have been rather expensive.
As the new government has taken over, the politicians in the state, in or out of power must take note of the fact that people of the state have had enough of undelivered promises, which amount to lies, underdevelopment and inability to access even the basic needs in life of a citizen.
Successive governments, with hallowed promises of changing the face of the state, has come and gone while common citizens are left to fend for themselves, devoid of roads, good educational and health facilities.
One thing that has been static all these years is procurement of unimaginably expensive cars, high raised buildings, buying land from the poor and handing out government jobs and contract work, disrespecting merit and hard work by those few at the helms of affairs. No matter how enthusiastic the citizens and those in power are, perhaps it would be foolish to expect that things, that have been a norm for decades now, will change overnight. An overhaul of system needs political motivation that will also ensure space for participation of the people. While I will take the liberty and hope for the best, the politicians, irrespective of party affiliations need to acknowledge that respect for politicians have dwindled. One may ask yours truly, but the fact remains that many citizens had welcomed the President’s Rule in the state, fed up with the politicians of the state. The only way to restore the faith of the common people is to deliver what is due to them.
The new Chief Minister has already chalked out his priority areas which among others include curbing of corruption and ensuring transparency and accountability. Tough deals, one may concur, given our history and the fact that it’s the same people.
Habits die hard so it would not be prudent to expect too much from any government but there is always hope for a welcome change, no matter how challenging the situation is.
February 3, 2016
Conflicting number games and tribal identity
[ Tongam Rina ]
While a constitutional bench of the Supreme Court is debating on political crisis in the state, on the evening of Republic Day, the President of India decided that Arunachal Pradesh indeed needed to be brought under Centre’s rule.
Not surprisingly, fed up with political uncertainty, many people of the state, in the urban areas have welcomed the decision.
As we wait what next the Court will say and what more drama will be played out, confusion has further deepened, in terms of formation of the next government.
The number simply do not match if the Congress has to form the government under Chief Minister in waiting Kalikho Pul.
Will Pul be able to manage enough number to form the next government since of the 47 Congress MLAs, including the two who were disqualified, he commands just 21? The ousted Chief Minister Nabam Tuki, as of now has 26 Congress MLAs with him. There are very few fence sitters.
The next few weeks will be decisive in terms of political as well as number games. If the Congress has to form the government, the state will witness massive switching of loyalty, either way, and horse trading; the hugely popular game in Arunachal politics.
Nabam Tuki has lost out on the number even though he might cry foul. The house simply does not have faith in him, as shown during the legislative sessions at Community Hall and a Hotel held during Dec 16-17. Under the current circumstances, it is unlikely that he would return to power this time even though he commands the larger number of Congress legislators.
Looking at the current bonhomie between rebel Congress and the BJP, bitter foes elsewhere but best friends in Arunachal, it does appear that BJP will be a major player. Will we see a defection to the BJP to form the next government by Pul and co, if he manages 10 more Congress MLAs to have the required 2/3 majority? Not an unlikely scenario given our history of being nervous if not in company of those who rule at the centre.
Court decision perhaps do not carry much meaning for the state now, other than deciding on the role of the Governor J P Rajkhowa but the political game of Pul, Tuki and BJP has just intensified.
Will the people of this state have confidence on the 60 legislators, MPs Kiren Rijiju, Mukut Mithi and Ninong Ering who could not save the state from president’s rule; a disgrace on the elected representatives?
But then we are hardly a society that votes on the basis of the merit of an individual. In almost all the cases, people have voted for candidates in exchange of money and favour. So, it is payback time from the legislators. Once voted to power, they will do exactly what they want. Why should they care when most of us gave away our rights to say anything in exchange of favours?
We stopped being a society that valued tribal ethics, freedom which was the very basis of tribal identity. While we may fight among ourselves, have the choicest mean word to describe a fellow tribal, we have no self respect to stand up and say that we can manage our affairs, no matter how ugly and divisive.
Our ancestors, who raided each other in search of supremacy but learnt to live together as neighbours, because they believed in fairness, must be turning in their graves because today we can’t decide for ourselves. Our age old system of coming together, when in crisis, has no meaning today. Perhaps this is new democracy, decided by others, who have no interest in the well being of the people or even clued how a tribal society functions. As someone said, the reality is that new age tribal gets carried away by emotion, not identity or reality.
January 13, 2016
Where will you go?
[ Tongam Rina ]
They say childhood are the best days in one’s life but for some it is the most traumatic. Some face hunger, physical and mental abuse, neglect that result in lifetime of insecurity. And then there are some who are left to die.
Many of us read about the eight-year-old girl who was physically assaulted in Pasighat recently. Severely malnourished, physically tortured beyond description, it’s a miracle that she made it to Pasighat General Hospital. But perhaps, let us call her baby B, is not an exception where many children are bought from impoverished parents of neighbouring Assam with a promise of better education. Some of these children are often adopted by family giving an entirely negative meaning to the word adoption.
Most of them end up as house hold help and baby sitters while they are still children themselves. We do not think twice making these children as young as five-six years work in the kitchen for long hours, washing dishes that are much bigger and heavier than them. Schools and normal childhood are mere dreams for these children who are sold by parents not only to come out of poverty, but with a hope for a better childhood for their children.
We often read advertisements of missing children in newspapers. One thing most common is that these children have Arunachalee name and surname. Only their physical appearance gives away the truth. But in spite of these glaring example grown-ups of this state have failed a section of children who are forced out of their childhood because of the situation they were born in. Though issue of child labour is a serious one all over the country, in our state it is unique because we had no facilities for these children who managed to escape from their trying situations. The child welfare committees are defunct so are juvenile justice board. The entire state has just one juvenile home and one short stay home. Currently, there is no separate commission for children even though we desperately need one since there is nothing in place to ensure intervention for children’s safety.
Perhaps it is time, as a tribal society that believes in equality, we look within ourselves and ask why some among us steal childhood from these children and why some of us keep silent. And it is certainly time for the government authorities to put in place a system to ensure safety and security of children. The intervention of authorities are needed more so in our state where we don’t follow any laid down rules in regards to child rights even though there are many legislations for the welfare of the children.
While yours truly is still traumatized and angered at what happened with baby B and family members and neighbours allowed it but there is a glimmer of hope. Some mothers of Pasighat alerted the administration and police who managed to rescue the little one so severely beaten, burnt and tortured.
That evening when she was brought to hospital I saw two faces of humanity: one of extreme brutality and the other of human kindness. The mothers of Pasighat who brought her food and diapers, babysat her, the police officer who brought her oranges, the over-worked nurse who kept checking her the whole night, the trainee nurses who came by to check on her, caretakers of little patients at the pediatric ward who offered money to buy her medicine. The hard work of doctors and nurses as well as her inner strength will help heal the physical wounds but her mental health remains a cause of concern. Where will baby B go once she is better?