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March  05, 2015

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Capital bandh creates little impact

ITANAGAR, Mar 4: The 24-hours capital bandh call given by All Arunachal Pradesh Border Students’ Union (AAPBSU) today created little impact as shops in many places remained open and all passengers as well as private vehicles plying on the road. AAPBSU had called the capital bandh in protest against non-fulfillment of its single-point demand for creation of the 3rd batch Arunachal Armed Police Battalion (AAPBn) with strength of 977 personnel.

AAPBSU has repeatedly been demanding for creation of the third batch battalion in view of acute shortage of armed forces to guard the state’s boundaries, various work places of the Trans-Arunachal Highway and various power projects where law and order problems are often reported.

Earlier the Union had organized a 12 hour capital bandh on the same issue on January 29 after submitting memorandum to the Chief Secretary demanding creation of the third AAPBn on August 28, 2014 and a month’s ultimatum was served on December 16 last year.

Meanwhile, the City Police had made elaborate police arrangemen to defy the bandh. CBSE exams were conducted peacefully and private vehicles plied without any hindrance, informed capital SP Seju P. Kuruvilla.  APST bus services were regular with the assistance of police escort and Itanagar market was open where as Naharlagun market was partially open.

The City Police has registered 03 cases against the members of AAPBSU and arrested one person namely Gaya Flago of Chayangtajo, East Kameng. Further investigation of the cases is in progress. Cases (ITA/PS/C.No-60/2015 U/S- 336/188/34 IPC R/W Sec 3 PDDPP Act  and NLG PS C/No- 35/2015 U/S- 188/506 IPC R/W Sec- 3 PDDPP Act and B/Dewa PS/C.No-05/2015 U/S- 188/353/506/34 IPC R/W sec- 3 PDPP Act.) have been registered in this regard.

 

Rashtra Ratan Award for Yamak Tana Tara

ITANAGAR, Mar 4: Achievers Association for Economic Research and Development New Delhi conferred Rashtra Ratan Award to Yamak Tana Tara, resident of Kimin, Papum Pare district in recognition of her academic, NCC activities & Community service on the occasion of National Seminar on Individual Achievements & National Development on February 27 last.

Yamak Tana Tara, who is also president of Parte Danne MPCSLTD Kimin, is a well-respected NGO worker.

 

 

AAPLU demands appointment of DEOs

ITANAGAR, Mar 04: All Arunachal Pradesh Labour Union (AAPLU) has demanded the state government for immediate appointment of all the 20 data entry operators (DEOs) against the 20 sanctioned posts.

It strongly opposed to the Department of Transport’s reported invitation for ‘walk-in-interview’ without govt. approval and in violation of office procedure.

 

ATYO demands SIT on land allotment

ITANAGAR, Mar 4: All Tagin Youth Organization (ATYO) has demanded constitution of a special investigation team (SIT) to look into the land allotment made during the tenure of Tahang Taggu as Deputy Commissioner of Upper Subansiri district.

Alleging rampant allotment of Govt land to private individuals, even in DC Bungalow Complex and market area, the ATYO further said that there should be review of recommendations for approval of land allotment and the land which has already been allotted.

 

Students’ union demands arrest of absconding accused

ITANAGAR, Mar 04: All Bameng Khenewa Lada Students' Union (ABKLSU) has demanded the East Kameng Superintendent of Police (SP) to make all possible efforts for arrest of the absconding person accused of raping a minor girl at Seppa on February 25.

“Otherwise, the people would start scoffing at the claimed competency of police or the law enforcing authority,” the letter said.

 

AIR phone-in prog

ITANAGAR, Mar 04: All India Radio, Itanagar will broadcast a live phone-in-programme entitled "Hello Doctor" on its Arun FM (103.1 MHZ) Channel on March 7.

Dr. PD Thongchi, District Tuberculosis Officer, Naharlagun will take listener's phone calls on the topic “TB and its treatment”.

Listeners can dial on 0360-2292239 from 8 to 8.30 PM to make any query on the given topic.

 

Women’s sensitized on legal rights

ITANAGAR, Mar 04: Indo Global Social Service Society (SMILE) yesterday conducted an awareness programme at Donyi Colony for women to sensitize them about their legal rights so that they can claim their rights affirmatively.

Resource person of the program Bengia Seema, Research Scholar, Rajiv Gandhi University dwelt on “Equality before law for women” enshrined in Article 14 of the Constitution. She informed about legal provisions under article 14 where women have been given equal rights of livelihood, free legal aid etc.

She shared the increasing incidents of domestic violence against women in the state. She also highlighted the provisions under Protection Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005.

She also informed the participants about National Commission for Women (NCW) and its functions.

“NCW is a statutory body with a specific mandate to study and monitor all matters relating to the constitutional and legal safeguards provided for women,” she informed.

She also made them aware that there is reservation for women in local self–governance and highlighted on National Plan of Action for the Girl Child (1991-2000), National Policy for the Empowerment of Women, 2001 etc.

IGSSS has also distributed 7-page handout containing various legal provisions available for women under Indian Constitution.

 

SSA Rajya Mission conducts girls convention

ITANAGAR, Mar 4: The SSA Rajya Mission has conducted two days state level Girl’s Convention at Girls’ Residential School Nirjuli on March 3 to 4. More than 160 students from various schools took part in it.

Addressing the valedictory function, DDSE T T Tara exhorted the students to utilize their knowledge and talent in right direction. Tara also addressed the inaugural session earlier.

P K Lombi (SPO) SSA Rajya Mission explained the motto of convention for Girl students and curricular activities.

14 houses burnt in Tadin, two  at Yapuk

ITANAGAR, Mar 4: In a major fire accident at Tadin village yesterday, fourteen dwelling houses including two granaries, a church, six rice mills and other properties were gutted down in the fire accident.

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A team of officers headed by In-charge Deputy Commissioner Tamik Talom visited the fire accident site to take stock of the situation and gave Rs. 4000 each to the affected families along with 12 bags of rice and one bag of salt as an immediate relief, reports DIPRO.

At Koloriang, two MIBT building along with properties was completely gutted down in a fire accident at Yapuk Model village.

The cause of fire is not known, informed Circle Officer.

 

Tea growers unhappy with ineffective implementation of Mission Mode scheme

ITANAGAR, Mar 4: The Arunachal Pradesh Small Tea Growers Association (APSTGA) in its governing body meeting held here yesterday expressed resentment over the ineffective implementation of the CM Mission Mode programme for small tea growers in the state.

Most of the small tea growers, who are supposed to be beneficiaries of the programme, alleged that   the nodal agencies under the scheme  have no idea at all about the tea plantation, they are not aware of tea sapling qualities, handling of its transportations, storing of saplings etc.  The meeting unanimously adopted resolutions to approach the Government for change of procurement policies during the financial year 2014-2015.

While participating in the meeting, Women and Child Development, Law and Justice Minister Wangling Lowangdong, who is also one of small tea growers, in his keynote address stressed the need of Central and State Govts’ assistance for solution to the problems in making the tea industry a profitable one. He said the tea industry may become the major revenue earning source after hydro power in the state but the state has not given a serious thought over the tea industry. However, the minister assured to play great role to remove the bottleneck.

 While lauding the former governor General J J Singh (Retd) for his initiative in establishment of Regional Tea Board office at Itanagar, the Association rued that the needy and marginal small tea growers of Arunachal Pradesh are being denied getting registered with Tea Board of India on the basis of circulation issued by the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Govt of India making compulsory forest clearance from the ministry as per directive of Supreme Court of India.

The house decided to approach every door for early solution to the vexed issue and for exclusion of such clauses in the interest of marginal small tea growers.

The meeting however, lauded the interest shown by   Prime Minister Narendra Modi  in organic team growth in his recent visit to the state.

 

CS inspects Naharlagun Rly station,gives emphasis on security measures

ITANAGAR, Mar 4: Delighted with the rail services connecting state capital with the rest of India, Chief Secretary Ramesh Negi along with IPR secretary Dani Salu has inspected the Naharlagun Railway Station and Tourist ILP Facilitation Centre on March 3 evening. While interacting with the railway officials on security issues, he urged the railway authority to take up initiative for erection of fencing around the boundary of railway station and put up “No Entry” sign boards in the sensitive areas. He also suggested for opening of indigenous handloom and handicrafts shop and small bookstalls related on Arunachal at railway station to cater to the need of tourists. The chief secretary directed them to maintain cleanliness around the station especially the toilets.

Later, the Chief Secretary interacted with some of the railway passengers. He assured to start two APST buses -- one from Nirjuli and another from Itanagar to Naharlagun Railway Station very shortly. The New Delhi bound AC Express Train (Weekly) and Inter-City Daily Express Guwahati to Naharlagun leave the Naharlagun Railway station at 9.10 pm and 9.30 pm respectively. Tourism Director Karma Leki and other officers of tourism department were present on the occasion.

 

Massive eviction drive in Ziro-Hapoli

ZIRO, Mar 4: An unprecedented eviction drive by the Lower Subansiri district administration witnessed several illegal structures being dismantled stretching across the entire length of Ziro-Hapoli township today.

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Illegal walls, pillars and other structures of both business establishments and residences falling under the right of way were taken down by the administration. Today's exercise was in continuation of the administration's efforts to speed up improvement of roads in the district headquarter. The eviction was conducted from Pai gate to the Higher secondary school tri-junction. Barring a few stray incidents the people were co-operative during the exercise.

Police personnel carrying out the eviction were led by circle officer Bengia Yakar, DLRSO Bharat Lingu, AE PWD Tage Lucy and SI Wangsa. DIPRO

 

Small tea growers cry foul

 

Prafulla Kaman

RUKSIN, Mar 4: The small tea growers of the state, who have been deprived from benefit of Tea Board of India, urged the state government to take an effective step in favour of the small tea growers so that they can avail the benefits for promotion of their tea gardens.

The farmers are facing problem to register their tea gardens after the Ministry of Environment & Forest (MOEF) issued a directive to Tea Board of India that the Board would issue registration to the tea growers only after obtaining forest clearance.

The farmers of Siang basin and other places are disappointed with the fact that Forest Conservation Act, 1980 and Supreme Court order, 1996 are creating hurdle in promotion of small tea garden. The Apex Court's verdict, which appeared after the writ petition (C) N0- 202/1995 filed against massive deforestation in Tirap and Changlang districts, rules over National Forest Protection Policy and ‘registration’ of cultivated area within notified forest area.

Thus, registration can be issued after ensuring that the proposed area of cultivation does not violate Forest Conservation Act, 1980 and Supreme Court order, 1996. The directive further stated that for Arunachal Pradesh, mere No Objection Certificate (NOC) issued by government is not sufficient to get registered as forest clearance is mandatory.

On the other hand, Tea Board guideline reveals that tea growers have to apply for registration to avail subsidy benefit under section 12(1) of Tea Act, 1953. As such, the tea farmers are bound for production of proper land document, soil susceptibility certificate with NOC from the competent authority for registration. In addition, the farmers have to produce Non-encumbrance certificate from the local administration and due clearance from Ministry of Environment & Forest (MoEF).

As per provisions of para-19 of the Tea Act, 1953, tea industry is under the control of Union Government and the state governments are not empowered to legislate on the subject. However, the state Govt. may take its own initiative in order to promote the tea growers.

The small tea growers of Siang basin have lamented that their bold initiatives of green revolution through massive tea cultivation was not appreciated by the government. They alleged that the state government, despite repeated appeals, is not taking effective step to mitigate their problem.

Hopefully, more than 100 farmers in East Siang district have grown small tea gardens and most of them begin to produce green tea leaves. The small tea growers are regularly supplying quality tea leaves a local tea processing industry, while plantation activities in the new areas reportedly under progress.

 

Nobin to represent India at Asian Karate Cup in Malaysia

ITANAGAR, Mar 4: First Commonwealth Karate medalist from North East P Nobin Jomoh will represent India at 6th Asian Karate Cup to be held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from March six to eight. He will join the Indian contingent in Kolkata tomorrow before leaving for Malaysia, informed Arunachal Karate Do Association (AKA).

Meanwhile, Nobin, Black Belt, 4th Dan (Japan), expressed his sincere gratitude to the higher ups of the state police department for extending support and cooperation by granting him leave for participation in the event.

Nobin is presently serving as Sub Inspector at Naharlagun Police Station.

Nobin, who has so far won many a medals in various national and international Karate championships, thanked Kamku Lamnio, a public leader, for sponsoring him without whose generous support the trip would not have been possible.

He also expressed gratitude to Parliamentary Tapuk Taku, AKA President Sensei Likha Tara, Technical Director Sensei S. Deben Sarma for their continuous support and guidance.

 

BJP demands inquiry into alleged irregularity in payment of honorarium

ITANAGAR, Mar 4: The State Level Monitoring and Vigilance Committee (SLMVC) of Bharatiya Janata Party, in a letter to East Kameng Deputy Commissioner, have demanded an inquiry into alleged irregularity in payment of honorarium to Gaon Burahs of Bameng, Khenewa and Lada circles.

SLMVC member secretary of the party Vijay Sonam in a letter to the Deputy Commissioner informed quoting GB association that the GBS and HGBs of those circles were not getting their honorarium on regular basis.

“The GBs are also unaware about the honorarium they are entitled to per month/annum,” the letter said.

It was reported that they were paid honorarium at the rate of Rs.2800 and Rs.3000 per annum in 2012-13 for GBs and HGBs respectively from the EAC office Bameng. They were not told the rate of honorarium per month or per annum entitled to them.

“It is learnt that the State Govt. has enhanced the honorarium at the rate of Rs.500 and Rs.600 per month for GBs and HGBs respectively w.e.f. April 2014. Hence, the honorarium of GBs and HGBs should be paid as per the enhanced rate or according to their entitlement as prescribed by the Govt.” the letter said.

“They should also be made aware of the amount they are entitled to per month/per annum so that unscrupulous person does not mint money out of their hard work,” the letter said.

“Further, their entitlement of honorarium per month/annum should be communicated to each member in all possible way, the letter added.

“PMGSY norms and guidelines”

Meanwhile, Sonam urged the Deputy Commissioner to ensure that the objective of providing road connectivity to the unconnected villages is achieved according to the design and plan of the project and there should not be any compromise on implementation of the project.

In his complaint letter to the Deputy Commissioner, Sonam stated that the road from Rangtewa to Taffo village (Stage-1) has not been constructed in conformity with PMGSY norms and guidelines.

Some portion of the old road from Bameng to Lapung has been shown as executed and amount drawn in total violation of the detailed project report, the letter alleged and urged the DC to look into the matter seriously before outburst of public sentiment.

In yet another letter to the deputy commissioner, Sonam sought the intervention of the former to ensure that the recommendation of the successful bidders of the financial bid for two projects under SPA, namely construction of Multi Purpose building at CO headquarters, Khenewa and construction of school building with approach road at Tasam Meorang school, is forwarded to the competent authority for approval at the earliest.

The financial bid for the two SPA projects were opened few days back but the recommendation of successful bidders have not been yet forwarded to the competent authority, the letter said.

“Further, the construction of suspension bridge over Sama River with porter track and Log Bridge at Jomoh to Wallong via Kawarang is temporarily suspended due to High Court notice. The onus lies on the part of the respondent to respond to the High Court notice at the earliest to ensure that the petition is quashed, the letter said.

 

APB&OCWWB resolves to increase amounts of benefits

ITANAGAR, Mar 04: Arunachal Pradesh Building and Other Construction Workers Welfare Board (APB&OCWWB) has decided to increase the amounts of benefits under various schemes for its registered workers in its 14th meeting held here yesterday.

The meeting adopted resolution to enhance death benefit from current Rs 50,000 to Rs One Lakh, medical assistance to Rs One lakh, housing loan to Rs One lakh, etc. The Board will put forward the adopted resolutions to the Government for approval.

MLA cum Chairman of APB&OCWWB Nyamar Karbak presided over the meeting and reiterated the state government’s commitment to uplift the working class.

The meting was attended by Labour Commissioner cum Member Secretary of the Board Ojing Darung, Deputy Secretary (Law) Ginjum Bomjen, Deputy Secretary (Finance) Dani Pyaro, SW, Hydro-Power Mudang Rajan, AAPLU president Dana Tadu, INTUC President Kenkar Yomcha and the members of the Board.

 

Applications invited: DAO

PASIGHAT, Mar 4: Reacting to a news item published in this daily on March 1 last on problems of Small tea growers regarding CM’s subsidy scheme, District Agriculture Officer clarified that application from interested bonafide APST farmers for Rubber & Tea cultivation under CM Mission Mode Project were invited.

Later, after necessary formalities, the scrutinized applications were placed before the District Selection Committee for selection of beneficiaries.

However, due to excess applications for 46 units, the Deputy Commissioner has approved for selection of beneficiary by circle-wise Lottery draw and accordingly it was held in presence of the Zilla Parishad Chairperson and PRI members.

Later, as per the decision taken in the meeting of selected tea beneficiary, tea planters and agriculture department, and as per the discussion of the selected beneficiary and the supplier, the supply of planting materials was done in November.

The Department has received more than one year old TV-22 Tea saplings from the concerned supplier, which have been verified by the board and the same has been distributed along with six rolls of barbed wire each to the beneficiaries and transported to their home/site. However, some of the beneficiary of nearby area has temporarily stored their tea saplings at APMC Store, Pasighat and some have stocked the tea saplings at their site/garden on their own consent and risk, the clarification added. (DIPRO)

 

APP team lifts WHS T20 Cricket trophy

ZIRO, Mar 04: Arunachal Pradesh Police (APP) team lifted the first ever WHS T20 Cricket Trophy defeating Indo Tibetan Border Police (ITBP) in the final at Dree ground here today.

P. Pumo was declared man of the series while J. Kamal was adjudged as the ‘man of the match’ of the final. Both of them are of APP team.

Apatani Youth Association (AYA), Ziro organized the tournament in collaboration with the district administration with the aim to sensitize people of Ziro Valley on the proposed declaration of World Heritage Site (WHS) of Apatani Cultural & Landscape. It was one of the effective activities towards creation of awareness on the importance of WHS and also to develop comradeship among civilian and the administration through sports activities especially among the youths.

AYA president Taku Chatung while highlighting the objectives of organizing the tournament  has informed that a mass cleanliness drive will be conducted at Kiiley River, the lone source of water in Ziro Valley for both drinking and agriculture use. Observing that the river has been completely polluted with garbage, he appealed to local people to extend necessary support for protection of the river. APP and 54 Bn ITBP in Ziro, has expressed their willingness to join the cleanliness drive, he disclosed.

He further informed that AYA will set up a library at Hija village as a pilot project this year on self help basis to promote education in Ziro.

R K Borthakur, Addl. Deputy Commissioner, Er. Tapi Tai, Secretary, Tanii Supuñ Dukuñ, Tumme Amo, Superintendent of Police and Sukhwinder Singh, Commandant, 54Bn ITBP also witnessed the final match.

Later, the dignitaries distributed the prizes.

 

Rural economy of Arunachal Pradesh and the education scenario

Tani Jongkey

It is well known to all of us and even people from outside the state who have been associated with Arunachal for a long period that the economy of the rural people, prior to the advent of modernity was Jhum Cultivation and rearing of Mithun, piggery, chicken etc. Prior to some forty years or so, the need of money was not felt much because the basic need of those days was quite minimal. The people mostly depended on forest and agricultural products. Education was distant dream.  Parents wanted their children to help them in field activities and hunting. Living standard of life was very simple. Modern amenities were not available in those days. The need of those days was salt, loin clothes and yarn for making simple clothes.

The people who possessed Mithuns and Pigs were counted as well to do. But gradually after the attainment of Union Territory in 1972 and statehood in 1987, people have realized the importance of education and thus started sending their children to schools although they have no money as govt provided everything free of cost. However, as the developmental activities came into play, the cost of education has gone up bringing burden to many of the poor parents. This is because most of the rural people do not have perennial source of income.  

90 per cent of the people depend on agricultural and horticultural products and also domesticated animals. Only few lucky and influential people can do some kind of business like contract and supply works earning handsome amount.  They can afford to send their children in good schools and colleges with good tuitions but majority of the parents are dependent on govt. schools and colleges. Conditions of govt. schools and colleges are relatively bad and quality education cannot be expected.

One may believe me or not but the total expenditure of my entire student life from Class-I to Graduation was not more than 1 (one) lakh. Whereas these days the average annual expenditure per children may not be less than 30,000/-. The parents who have money, spends 5 (five) lacs or more per children annually. So one can imagine how poor parents manage such amount annually who have no regular or perennial earning source.

Most of the school buildings and hostels are in dilapidated conditions as no maintenance is being done. Teachers are available but never distributed fairly. Some schools and colleges are overcrowded but some are running without teachers. All these are because of too much political interference in transfer and posting and lack of political will. Because of this situation, many of the students go to schools and colleges for name sake only. After taking attendance they go out from the schools and indulge in unbecoming activities like drugs, alcohol, gossiping.

Today, we are closely witnessing that the crime rate is shooting up. Murder, rape, molestation, threatening, kidnapping, extortion, donation, drug addicts are raising unabated. All these immoral activities are because of lack of quality education and proper guidance from the parents, society and the teaching fraternity. And all these nuisance may increase more if the society and the govt. do not find out ways to deal with iron hand. We shall never find peace of mind and shall remain in an environment of fear and frustration.  

I could vividly remember that during 1975 to 1985, Govt had initiated a lots to boost up the economy of the rural people by way of  extending financial and materials support in  agriculture, horticulture, fisheries sectors.  To  monitor all these activities and guide the beneficiaries many VLW, Fishery Demonstrator, UFA & Horticulture Field Asstt. have been posted in the villages. Guided by them, many villagers have started orange & pineapple gardening, fish ponds etc and also wet cultivation to minimize  jhum cultivations. But after due course of time, this spirit of government persuasion has dried down and there is no arrangement to sell farm products. All these field staffs are simply drawing their salary. However, people have taken up wet cultivation in a big way. Wherever there is plain or slope area with water source nearby has been converted in to wet cultivation field. This has of course reduced the jhum cultivation to a large extent.

To cite an example, in the last 2-3 years, many villagers of Siang belt after seeing the demand of gingers at Dibang Valley District had cultivated gingers in a large scale by investing huge amount and labour. But after a few years, no buyer has turned up to purchase it. Gingers have been either left along the road side or at field itself. The Govt  did not compensate them. This had badly discouraged the farmers although the land are fertile for agriculture products.  

Under above worse experience, our rural people although talk of rubber and tea plantation, they have fear psychosis of losing their hard earned money and energy without any return. In view of this, I sincerely feel that incase of non-selling of their products, Govt. should buy them at reasonable price and store them in cold storage and sell it at any market, where there is demand.  In this way, govt. can uplift the economy of the rural people and boost up their moral and enthusiasm to undertake more cultivation. It is about time govt. introduces minimum support price for selected crops and products in the mainland India. (The writer is a Joint Commissioner, T&E).

 

Women, where art thou?

A Feminist appraisal of International Politics

 

Ngurang Reena,

JNU, Delhi

Politics is a man’s world! These are not my words, but by men themselves.

Eleanor Roosevelt once said, “If women want to be in politics, they need to grow skin as thick as a rhinoceros”. Like Roosevelt, many have observed that International politics is man’s world. A world inhabited by Diplomats, Soldiers, and international civil servants, most of whom are men.

IR was founded as a separate discipline in the wake of World War 1, charged with investigating the causes of war and conditions for peace.  As Tickner puts it, IR with its focus on the “high” politics of war and Real politik, the traditional Western academic discipline of international relations privileges issues that grow out of men’s experiences; we are socialized into believing that war and power politics are spheres of activity with which men have a special affinity and that their voices therefore likely to be more authentic. The roles traditionally ascribed to women— in reproduction, in households, and even in the economy—are generally considered irrelevant to the traditional construction of the field.

The history of modern western feminist Movements can be divided into three waves:

Women’s suffrage movements of the 19th and the early 20th cent. promoting woman’s right to vote. The second wave was associated with the ideas of the women’s liberation movement for legal/social equality in the 60’s. Which was contiued in the 90’s as the third wave, as a reaction to the percievd failures of the past. However, the first IR journal special issue on women and International Relations appeared in Millennium in 1988. Cynthia Enloe’s path breaking Bananas, Bases and Beaches: Making Feminist Sense of International Politics appeared in 1990. And by the early 2000s, this discipline came to be known a “Feminist IR” or Gender and IR.

The year 1988, positively marked an important milestone when the second wave was at its peak. with the 1975-85 : The UN decade of women, serving as  blaze raised the individual consciousness of women, stirred a change in the power dynamics, in the private and public sphere. it was also the first time in the history that women rights were considered human rights!

Feminism theory, which emerged from the movements, aims to understand the nature of gender inequality by examining women’s social roles and lived experience, encompassing

work in a variety of discipline ,from Anthropology Sociology economics etc. It takes “ women as women” very seriously while also making “Men as men visible”. Therefore, in its simplest understanding, Feminism refers to Gender- Equality. It is a multidisciplinary approach to Sex and Gender equality understood to through various social theories and Political activism.

The affinity between Feminism, gender and Power.

As said, Feminism explores power in all its forms; Gender is just one of the crucial building blocks of feminist analysis. While Gender expolres meaning attached to Feminist and Masculinity, about how these socially constructed and a historically contested meaning shapes relations between men and women and the various institutions. On the other hand, Feminist Sanalysis explicitly puts power at the center of analysis.

Masculinities and war

Masculinity and politics have a long and close association. Characteristics associated with “manliness,” such as toughness, courage, power, independence, and even physical strength, have, throughout history, been those most valued in the conduct of politics, particularly international politics. Frequently, manliness has also been associated with violence and the use of force, a type of behavior that, when conducted in the international arena has been valorized and applauded in the name of defending one’s country. R. W. Connell points out; this stereotypical image of masculinity does not fit most men. Connell suggests that what he calls “hegemonic masculinity,” a type of culturally dominant masculinity that he distinguishes from other subordinated masculinities, is a socially constructed cultural ideal that, while it does not correspond to the actual personality of the majority of men, sustains patriarchal authority and legitimizes a patriarchal political and social order.

“[Feminists] need a home in which everyone has a room of her own, but one in which the walls are thin enough to permit a conversation.” Suggesting that the personal is political, feminist scholars have brought to our attention distinctions between public and private in the domestic polity: examining these artificial boundary distinctions in the domestic polity could shed new light on international boundaries, such as those between anarchy and order, which are so fundamental to the conceptual framework of realist discourse.

Tickner, in his Man, State and the War: Gendered perspective on National security. He introduces Gender as a category of analysis into the discipline of IR. The marginalization of women in the area of foreign policy making. her very famous work was, “You just don’t understand” describes, how in the name of national security, states have justified large defense budgets, which take priority over domestic spending, military conscription of their young adult male population. The task of defining, defending, and advancing the security interests of the state is a man’s affair, a task that, through its association with war, has been especially valorized and rewarded in many cultures throughout history.

As Simone de Beauvoir’s explanation for male superiority suggests, giving one’s life for one’s country has been considered the highest form of patriotism, but it is an act from which women have been virtually excluded. While men have been associated with defending the state and advancing its international interests as soldiers and diplomats, women have typically been engaged in the “ordering” and “comforting” roles both in the domestic sphere, as mothers and basic needs providers, and in the caring professions, as teachers, nurses, and social workers.

It is difficult to find definitions by women of national security. While it is not necessarily the case that women have not had ideas on this subject, they are not readily accessible in the literature of international relations. When women speak or write about national security, they are often dismissed as being naive or unrealistic. Addressing the International Congress of Women at The Hague during World War I, Jane Addams spoke of the need for a new definition to replace the idea of a self-destructive nationalism. The conference concluded that assuring security through military means was no longer possible, and it called for disarmament as a more appropriate course for ensuring future security. It concluded by defining security in various ways depending on the most immediate threats to their survival; security meant safe working conditions and freedom from the threat of war or unemployment. While women from the third World defined insecurity more broadly in terms of the structural violence associated with imperialism, militarism, racism, and sexism. Cllaiming they are interconnected, most feminists would agree that the behavior of individuals and the domestic policies of states could not be separated from states’ behavior in the international system.

Feminists call attention to the particular vulnerabilities of women within states, vulnerabilities that grow out of hierarchical gender relations that are also interrelated with international politics. Calling into question the notion of the “protected,” the National Organization for Women in their “Resolution on Women in Combat” of September 16, 1990, estimated that 80-90 percent of casualties due to conflict since World War II have been civilians, the majority of whom have been women and children. In militarized societies, women are particularly vulnerable to rape, and evidence suggests that domestic violence is higher in military families or in families that include men with prior military service. Even though men against other men, itis more often women who feel threatened in public places, commit most public violence.

Jill Radford suggests that when women feel it is unsafe to go out alone, their equal access to job opportunities is limited. Feminist theories draw our attention to another anarchy/order distinction— the boundary between a public space protected, by the rule of law and the private space of the family where, in many cases, no such legal protection exists. In most states, domestic violence is not considered a concern of the state, and even when it is, law enforcement officials are often unwilling to get involved. Domestic assaults on women, often seen as are not taken as seriously as criminal assaults.  Maria Mies argues that, as poor women probably suffer the most from family violence, a growing women’s movement in India points to an increase in violence against educated middle-class women also, the extreme form of which is dowry murder. In 1982 there were 332 cases of “accidental burning” of women in New Delhi; many more cases of “dowry deaths” go unreported. Recent studies of family violence in the United States and Western Europe have brought to light similar problems. When the family is violence-prone, it is frequently beyond the reach of the law; citing a 1978 report of the California Commission on the Status of Women, Pauline Gee documents, that one-quarter of the murders in the United States occurred within the family, one-half of these being husband-wife killings.

Maria Mies argues that this line, which demarcates public and private, separates state-regulated violence, the rule of right for which there are legally sanctioned punishments, and male violence, the rule of might for which, in many societies, no such legal sanctions exist. The rule of might and the rule of right are descriptions that have also been used in international relations discourse to distinguish the international and domestic spheres.

Hence, Family violence must be seen in the context of wider power relations; it occurs within a gendered society in which male power dominates at all levels.

As Cynthia Enloe questioned, “Where are the women?”, referring to the women representation across the globe in International politics, let me tell you, today, women represents only 18.6% of the world, in the various parliaments.

In most of the contemporary world, men do not need to give up their gender identity in order to practice foreign policy; however, the same cannot be said for women. Until we reach a point where values associated with femininity are more universally valued in public life, women will continue to try to give up being feminine when they enter the world of international politics, for those who are the most successful are those who can best deny their femininity.

For example, Ms. Hillary Clinton, who is an epitome of women empowerment, yet she is criticized with sexist comments about her hair! Chrisitine Lagarde, the MD of the IMF. In fact the first women to head the IMF, was featured in a magazine labeled as, “Can this woman save Europe?” Angela Merkel, Another woman of power, Germany’s first women chancellor of Germany and the leader of the CDU has been described as the defacto leader of the EU called as the milkmaid, despite ranked as the most powerful person by the Forbes in 2013. And by this year, she is ranked as the world’s most powerful woman. While, there have been growing number of women representations in the policy making, we can infer is, Gender shapes and is shaped by Global Politics.

Conclusion

Talking about India, it has been a rather irksome journey for the women in power, let alone those wishing to be a significant part of the ‘Game’. In the recent visit of the President of the US on the 66th Republic day, India did try its best to showcase the, “Woman Power”  with all -women contigets of the three services for the first time. But again, women Army officers are still denied permanent commission on a par with men: they have to be content with the short service commission. (Going Beyond symbolism, Jan 29th,The Hindu).

The detailed article titled, “Glass celings in state cabinets”,(february 16th, The Hindu) talked about how the Women representation in the Ministries is low, and often restricted to certain portfolios. “With all State Assemblies put together, 360 of the country’s 4,120 MLAs — or nine per cent — are women, The Hindu’s analysis of data compiled by Bhanupriya Rao, an open data campaigner and Right to Information activist, shows. However, just 39 of the 568 Ministers in State governments, or less than seven per cent, are women. Fewer still are Cabinet Ministers.” Two States and one Union Territory — Nagaland, Mizoram and Puducherry — have no women MLAs at all! quite a shock isn’t it? “Four additional States — Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Telangana and Punjab — have women MLAs, but no women Ministers. Nearly 12 per cent of Punjab’s Assembly comprises women, while Telangana, Delhi and Uttar Pradesh have close to 10 per cent women MLAs, yet none of these States have a woman Minister.”

As we await  and may be celebrate the Women’s day, let me remind you about the much debated, The Constitution (108th Amendment) Bill, a pending bill in India proposing to amend the Constitution of India to reserve 33 per cent of all seats in the Lower house of Parliament of India, the Lok Sabha, and in all state legislative assemblies for women. The Upper House Rajya Sabha, has passed the bill on 9 Mar 2010 but as of February 2014, the Lower House Lok Sabha has not yet voted on the bill! Can we ask why?

Dear World, Men and Women, The answer lies in the minds of them; the Men: “JDU leader Sharad Yadav opposing the Women’s Bill, said that the bill would only benefit the well-off in the cities, describing well-off women as, ‘‘par kati auratein’ (women with short hair). Also, i tell you, Men are not very happy when women are “Loud”! Congress MP Sanjay Nirupam to BJP MP Smriti Irani: It’s only four days of your entry into politics and you have become a political analyst. Aap toh TV pe thumke lagati thi, aaj chunavi vishleshak ban gayi (you were shaking your hips on Tv, and now you have become a psephologist).

A world that is more secure for us all cannot be achieved until the oppressive gender hierarchies that operate to frame the way in which we think about and engage in international politics are dismantled. A non-gendered perspective could truly offer us a more inclusively human way of thinking about our collective future, a future in which women and men could share equally in the construction of a safer and more just world.

 

 

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